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    What are predatory journals?

    Predatory journals are a deceptive and exploitive publishing model where no quality checks for plagiarism or ethical approval exists and where authors are charged publication fees with no editorial or publishing services provided., accessed on 18/02/2023

    Leading scholars and publishers from ten countries defined predatory journals as: “Predatory journals and publishers are entities that prioritize self-interest at the expense of scholarship and are characterized by false or misleading information, deviation from best editorial and publication practices, a lack of transparency, and/or the use of aggressive and indiscriminate solicitation practices.”

    There are more than 90 checklists to help authors identify predatory journals, but that only three of the lists were developed based on research evidence. Moreover, there is no one list to identify them all, due to inconsistencies.

    Predatory journals: no definition, no defence, COMMENT, 11 December 2019, accessed on 18/02/2023

    What are the effects of publishing in a predatory journal?

    Publishing an article in a predatory journal affects your reputation negatively as a researcher. Academic reputation is built on citation metrics worldwide and articles in predatory journals have little to no chance of being cited. It is very difficult to retract an article from a predatory publisher or journal, or to convince a credible publisher to publish your article using the

    same data as most journals have a policy of only accepting works which have not already been published.

    Universities and other organizations supply advice on how to retract an article published in a predatory journal. Here are two examples of how to withdraw your work from a predatory journal.


    How to withdraw your work from a predatory journal? The San José State University Library guide., accessed on 18/02/2023


    Charlesworth Author Services, British experts in academic editing, provides steps to follow a take-down process following one of two scenarios.

    Scenario 1: You have not signed a copyright agreement or paid the journal to publish the article. Scenario 2: You have transferred copyright to the predatory journal., accessed on 18/02/2023

    How to check if a journal is predatory?

    There are several useful articles and guides available on the web to help authors identify predatory journals.


    Think, Check, Submit, is a cross-industry initiative led by representatives from ALPSP, AUP, COPE, DOAJ, ISSN, LIBER, OAPEN, OASPA, STM, and UKSG. They provide a range of tools and practical resources to help researchers identify trusted journals and publishers for their research., accessed on 18/02/2023


    Susan A. Elmore and Eleanor H. Weston also provides useful information for authors to assess whether a journal engages in predatory practices by following steps in 3 tables titled:

    • Table 1. Common Characteristics of Predatory Journals.
    • Table 2. Helpful Tips to Determine if a Journal or Publisher is Predatory
    • Table 3. Free and Subscription Resources that may be Helpful for Identifying Predatory Journals Predatory journals: what they are and how to avoid them, by Susan A. Elmore and Eleanor H. Weston. Toxicol Pathol. 2020 Jun; 48(4): 607–610. accessed on 18/02/2023


    Journal checklist. Assess the quality of scholarly journals checklist by Wynand van der Walt, Kirsten Krauss and Denise Nicholson.

    Click here to download

    (CC-BY licence)


    Citation Pollution & Predatory/Questionable Publishing Practices. DIGI-FACE Publications Webinar, 29 February 2024

    Click here to download

    (CC-BY licence)


    Retraction Watch

    A database of retractions, expressions of concern and related publishing events, generated by the work of Retraction Watch. The database is freely available to scientists, scholars and anyone else interested in analyzing the information.

    The mission of the Center for Scientific Integrity, the parent organization of Retraction Watch, is to promote transparency and integrity in science and scientific publishing, and to disseminate best practices and increase efficiency in science.

    See the Retraction Watch Database User Guide for more information on how to use this site., accessed on 06/03/2024